In the world of video production, interviews are the most common type of video. But retrieving good useable content from an interview is not as easy as it seems. Here are a few tips for getting the best content from your interviews:
1. Make Your Subject Comfortable – Answer any questions they may have, tell them how this is gonna work, tell them it’s ok to mess up and just start their sentence over, joke with them, compliment them, etc. The more comfy they are, the more natural they’ll be.
2. Know What You’re After – Before you sit down to talk, you should have a good idea of what it is you want from them. This doesn’t mean that you know everything they’re going to say. In fact, you shouldn’t. But you should know the basic message or storyline you’re after so you can move the conversation in that direction.
3. Prepare Questions Ahead of Time – I have made the mistake of “winging it” with the questions and not writing them down. This leaves cracks and holes in the answers that you can avoid by just writing down the questions before you arrive.
4. Ask Unprepared Probing Questions – In addition to your written questions, you should come up with additional probing questions depending on their answers. Sometimes there’s a gold nugget sound bite hiding behind an answer that requires one additional question to reveal itself.
5. Make Them Restate their Answer – Sometimes a person gives a good answer that is too long and poorly worded. Look out for those answers that need to be restated. Answering questions can sometimes be a “thinking out loud” process, and restating the answer is much easier for the subject once they’ve gathered their thoughts.
6. Be Genuinely Curious – The best interviewers have a curious nature about them. They’re interested. They want to know what happened, how you felt, why you did that, etc. It’s a unique opportunity to sit down and ask somebody their story. Dig into it and learn something. Put yourself in their shoes and ask questions from that vantage point. Interviewees give good answers to interviewers who seem genuinely interested.
That’s my list. Would you add any others?
I’m currently wrapping up a project with a client who had a lot of “cool shots” in his head. He had an idea of some interview stories we were going to tell, and also some shots in his head that we could use for the video. This happens occasionally, where the client has ideas in their mind of shots they want. This is totally fine as long as the shots in their mind help communicate the story we’re trying to tell.
My typical mode of storytelling with interview-style videos involves shooting the interview first, and then creating a list of storytelling shots I’ll need based on what the interviewee said. I typically come in with some ideas of what to shoot since I’m usually familiar with the story they’ll be telling. But interviewees typically give me content that wasn’t expected, and in turn I come up with visual ideas to communicate that.
Sometimes I’ll even wait until I have a first edit of the interview before shooting the B-roll footage to be used. Kind of like writing the script before choosing the shots.
So now that I’m finishing up this video, it turns out that my client had several cool shots in mind that don’t fit anywhere in the story. He’s right they are cool shots. But a cool shot that has nothing to do with the story is an unnecessary shot.
I recently met with a new company about creating a video for their website. The video is for their homepage and will explain what the company does. I typically have 3 questions that I walk through with companies or people looking to create this type of video. They are as follows:
1. Who’s the target viewer?
This question helps weed out content that doesn’t need to be in the video. The great pitfall of creating a company video is putting too much information in the video. If we’re looking to land at 2.5 minutes or less for a web video, then we need to be laser-focused on who it is we’re talking to. And once we know who we’re talking to, it separates what the video should say from what other communication methods should say (website, customer service reps, brochures, etc.).
2. What’s your main message for the video?
There will be more messages in the video than just one, but if you could only pick one message that would be in the video, what would it be? This helps give the overall video direction and purpose, kind of like a thesis statement gives a term paper purpose.
3. What are five adjectives you would use to describe how the final video should feel?
This speaks to the packaging…the style. High energy vs low energy, touching vs funny, informative vs eye candy, etc. This helps me decide what and how to shoot, whether to add movement to my shots, what kind of music to use, and other considerations as to the style and feel of the video.
Anything I missed that you would add?
I recently read somewhere to accept projects that scare you, and then figure out how to accomplish them. Ironically, I just did this past weekend.
I got a call about doing a time-lapse video shoot of an installation of satellite equipment on an airplane in Detroit, MI. While I have done some time-lapse shoots before, I hadn’t done any for longer than 2 hours, and not with multiple camera angles. On top of that, I was ignorant about what I should even shoot because I didn’t know anything about satellite installations on planes.
But I took the job, and decided I would learn what I needed to learn in order to do the shoot. I was perfectly comfortable with much of the process: shooting B-Roll, setting up camera angles and locations, setting correct exposures. But there were some things I needed to learn:
-How often should the camera take a photo?
-What size photos should I shoot?
-When will I run out of space on my cards?
-How often should I change angles?
-How should I shoot time lapses with GoPro cameras and how are they different than DSLRs?
So I spent a few hours browsing the web and watching videos getting as much info as I could, and did my photo interval calculations during the 5 hour car ride.
I was admittedly a little nervous about this job. But it went well. And I learned some stuff. And I’m better off for it. And I just returned from another 4-day plane installation shoot that was much bigger in scope than the first one.
Seems that it pays off to do what scares you.
In the video world, interviews are the most common type of shoot. So I thought I’d share some tips for people who find themselves shooting interviews occasionally or frequently.
1. Make Your Interview Person Comfortable
This starts way before shooting. Your interviewee is going to be nervous. Sitting in front of cameras and lights and talking about something is akin to public speaking. Very nerve-racking and intimidating. There are several ways you can get them to relax:
• Joke with them and find something in common to talk about before shooting.
• Make sure they know they look good. Compliment their hair, makeup, shirt, whatever. Also be sincere. If they need to add makeup or fix their hair, have them do it and then compliment it.
• Explain that it’s ok if they mess up. Everyone does. Just start their sentence over if they need to. You’ll fix it in editing.
• Genuinely listen to them as they talk. Don’t be distracted by cameras, audio, etc. Give them your full attention.
• Ask follow-up questions out of curiosity. Sometimes giving a random follow-up question gets them to relax because talking about a specific detail is less intimidating than telling a whole story.
2. Have Your Interview Person Re-State Your Question in Sentence Form
When I ask “What’s your favorite cereal?” don’t just answer “Cocoa Puffs”. Answer “My favorite cereal is Cocoa Puffs.”
3. Use at Least 2 Camera Angles
This makes your editing much easier as you can cut to another angle when skipping a portion of their answer. I use a 50mm lens as my main front lens (either on crop sensor or full-frame), and then shoot a tighter angle (100mm on crop-sensor) on one side of them. Sometimes I glide the side angle, sometimes not. I also sometimes use a 24-105 lens for the side angle and change the focal length from medium to tight in-between questions. If you only shoot with 1 camera, you’re limited to jump-cuts unless you have tons of B-Roll footage to put overtop the interview. And if you have only 1 camera, I would at least change up your focal length in-between questions for visual interest.
4. Use a Boom Mic
I’ve used boom, wireless lapel, and condenser mics for interviews. The boom is the best because it cancels out any noise not directly in front of it. Other mics work fine, but the boom sounds the best.
5. Wear Headphones for Audio
Make sure you or an assistant is monitoring the audio level at all times. I’ve had mics completely cut out in the middle of an interview for random reasons. If I didn’t have headphones on to catch it, I would have been screwed.
6. Choose a Quiet Location to Shoot
If possible, avoid rooms with running air conditioning, fans, people walking by, dogs barking, children crying, etc. Also let everyone in the vicinity know you’re shooting so they remain quiet.
7. Shoot with a Deep Background
If possible, have the background of the interviewer be as deep as possible. This gives a stronger blur or “bokeh” behind your interview person, which is a nice bump in visual quality. Don’t put them with a wall or bookshelf right behind them. Bring them somewhere else if your room is too small.
8. Light Your Interview Person
This doesn’t necessarily mean with lights. Window light does a very nice job of lighting a person. I’ve done interview shoots with no lights at all, just using window light as my main light source and adjusting the subject as necessary. But if you do use lights, I recommend lighting them at a 45-degree angle either straight on or slightly to the side of them. There are many other ways to light, but this is my main way of lighting, and I usually only use one light to do it.
Hope this helps. Let me know if I missed anything you can think of.